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Al■jˇ­avŠ­ingin Útur b÷rnin sÝn

maí 20, 2003

┴ Úg ekki bara a­ sk˙bba M˙rinn: I was wrong. Free market trade policies hurt the poor.

Ůetta er nokku­ athyglisver­ grein skrifu­ Ý helsta helgirit vinstrimanna ß ═slandi, The Guardian. Greinin er skrifu­ af Stephen Byers, fyrrum vi­skiptarß­herra Bretlands. Hann segist ß­ur hafa stutt a­ fullu fullkomlega opi­ marka­shagkerfi Ý ■rˇunarl÷ndunum en hefur n˙ skipt um sko­un og segist vilja a­ ■rˇunarl÷ndin verndi i­na­inn sinn ß me­an i­na­urinn Ý vi­komandi l÷ndum er a­ ■rˇast.

As leader of the delegation from the United Kingdom, I was convinced that the expansion of world trade had the potential to bring major benefits to developing countries and would be one of the key means by which world poverty would be tackled.

In order to achieve this, I believed that developing countries would need to embrace trade liberalisation. This would mean opening up their own domestic markets to international competition. The thinking behind this approach being that the discipline of the market would resolve problems of underperformance, a strong economy would emerge and that, as a result, the poor would benefit. This still remains the position of major international bodies like the IMF and World Bank and is reflected in the system of incentives and penalties which they incorporate in their loan agreements with developing countries. But my mind has changed.

...

A different approach is needed: one which recognises the importance of managing trade with the objective of achieving development goals.

Og hann heldur ßfram

Rich nations may be prepared to open up their own markets, but still keep in place massive subsidies. The quid pro quo for doing this is that developing countries open up their domestic markets. These are then vulnerable to heavily subsidised exports from the developed world.

The course of international trade since 1945 shows that an unfettered global market can fail the poor and that full trade liberalisation brings huge risks and rarely provides the desired outcome. It is more often the case that developing countries which have successfully expanded their economies are those that have been prepared to put in place measures to protect industries while they gain strength and give communities the time to diversify into new areas.

This is not intervention for the sake of it or to prop up failing enterprises, but part of a transitional phase to create strong businesses that can compete on equal terms in the global marketplace without the need for continued protection.

Just look at some examples. Taiwan and South Korea are often held out as being good illustrations of the benefits of trade liberalisation. In fact, they built their international trading strength on the foundations of government subsidies and heavy investment in infrastructure and skills development while being protected from competition by overseas firms.

...

Zambia and Ghana are both examples of countries in which the opening up of markets has led to sudden falls in rates of growth with sectors being unable to compete with foreign goods. Even in those countries that have experienced overall economic growth as a result of trade liberalisation, poverty has not necessarily been reduced.

Hann endar svo me­ skilabo­um til Al■jˇ­abankans

The way forward is through a regime of managed trade in which markets are slowly opened up and trade policy levers like subsidies and tariffs are used to help achieve development goals.

The IMF and World Bank should recognise that questions of trade liberalisation are the responsibility of the WTO where they can be considered in the overall context of achieving poverty reduction and that it is therefore inappropriate to include trade liberalisation as part of a loan agreement.

Ůetta eru athyglisver­ir punktar hjß Byers, ■rßtt fyrir a­ Úg sÚ ekki sammßla ÷llu, sem hann segir. Hann leggur til dŠmis ekki nˇga ßherslu ß mikilvŠgi ■ess a­ rÝku l÷ndin felli ni­ur sÝna tollam˙ra fyrir v÷rur frß ■rˇunarl÷ndunum. GrÝ­arlegir tollar ß landb˙na­arv÷rum ey­ileggja tŠkifŠri fyrir fßtŠkustu l÷ndin til a­ koma sÝnum helstu framlei­sluv÷rum ß marka­. Framsˇknarmenn Ý ÷llum l÷ndum eiga einna mestan hei­ur af ■vÝ a­ vi­halda fßtŠkt Ý heiminum.

Einar Írn uppfŠr­i kl. 12:10 | 669 Or­ | Flokkur: HagfrŠ­i



UmmŠli (2)


╔g er sammßla ■Úr um, a­ besta ■rˇunara­sto­in er a­ opna marka­i ß Vesturl÷ndum fyrir v÷ru og ■jˇnustu frß ■rˇunarl÷ndunum, og sÝ­an ■arf a­ opna ■rˇunarl÷ndin fyrir fjßrmagni og ■ekkingu frß Vesturl÷ndum. Rß­herrann fyrrverandi gerir ekki nŠgilega skřran greinarmun ß markmi­um og lei­um. Markmi­i­ er frjßls al■jˇ­avi­skipti og opi­ hagkerfi neytendum og framlei­endum Ý hag. Lei­in kann stundum a­ vera a­ fara sÚr hŠgt, gera ekki allt Ý einu, hrinda fˇlki ekki umsvifalaust ˙t ˙r hef­bundinni umger­ tilveru sinnar. HHG

Hannes Hˇlmsteinn Gissurarson sendi inn - 21.05.03 15:48 - (UmmŠli #1)

Ůa­ mß margt segja um ■ennan pistil rß­herrans fyrrverandi. Hinsvegar finnst mÚr ■etta sřna ■ekkingarleysi Ý hags÷gu:

In more recent years, those countries which have been able to reduce levels of poverty by increasing economic growth - like China, Vietnam, India and Mozambique - have all had high levels of intervention as part of an overall policy of strengthening domestic sectors.

Ef hann sko­a­i s÷gu ■essara landa myndi einmitt sjßst dŠmi um ■au jßkvŠ­u ßhrif sem opnun marka­a hefur Ý f÷r me­ sÚr.

Talandi um beingrei­slur, ni­urgrei­slur, tolla og a­rar “verndara­ger­ir” vestrŠnna ■jˇ­a - sem eru reyndar ■ess hßttar “verndara­ger­ir” a­ ■Šr kosta ■˙sundir mannslÝfa Ý ■ri­ja heiminum ß ßri hverju - ■ß mŠli Úg me­ skrifum J. Bhagwati, prˇfessors Ý Columbia. Einsog hann bendir ß er eitt af vandamßlum ■ri­ja heimsins s˙ sta­reynd a­ “rÝku ■jˇ­irnar” sjß vi­skiptahindranir sem spil Ý pˇkerleik vi­skiptasamninga. ŮŠr fßu ■jˇ­ir sem hafa hinsvegar lagt ni­ur slÝka y­ju hafa fegni­ ■a­ margfalt til baka - ■ˇtt ni­urfelling tolla, styrkja o.■.h. hafi veri­ einhli­a a­ger­! Ůß mß hinsvegar ekki gleyma ■vÝ mikilvŠga atri­i Ý allri umrŠ­u um ■rˇunarmßl, sem er uppbygging infrastr˙kt˙rs.

Ef ■jˇ­fÚlagi­ er ekki “tilb˙i­” er Ý raun sama hva­ er gert, ■a­ fer allt til andskotans ef uppbygging ß sÚr ekki sta­. M÷rg AfrÝkurÝki eru ■vÝ mi­ur skˇlabˇkardŠmi um hvernig hŠgt er a­ r˙sta l÷ndum me­ ■vÝ a­ loka ■eim. Infrastr˙kt˙rinn ■arf a­ vera starfhŠfur ß­ur en hŠgt er a­ b˙ast vi­ nokkru.

Sem minnir mig ß a­ Úg var a­ heyra t÷lur um hva­ ■a­ kosta­i a­ gera Afganistan “starfhŠft” sem land aftur. 20-22 milljar­a dollara, ekki minna. ┴ Tokyo-rß­stefnunni fyrir ca. ßri voru gefin lofor­ fyrir um 4 millj÷r­um. Af ■eim hafa tveir skila­ sÚr n˙ ■egar.

┴g˙st sendi inn - 22.05.03 15:22 - (UmmŠli #2)

UmmŠlum hefur veri­ loka­ fyrir ■essa fŠrslu





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  • ┴g˙st: Ůa­ mß margt segja um ■ennan pistil rß­herrans fyr ...[Sko­a]
  • Hannes Hˇlmsteinn Gissurarson: ╔g er sammßla ■Úr um, a­ besta ■rˇunara­sto­in er ...[Sko­a]


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